Archive for the 'Culture' Category


Indian Indentured Migration to the Caribbean by Steven Vertovec

The abolishment of slavery and the emancipation of th slave population marked a turning point in the history of the West Indies. The British government passed the Act of Emancipationin 1833 and declared it law in the following year., freeing a slave population of around 665 000 in the British Carribbean… see more here


Aapravasi Ghat

The Aapravasi Ghat Trust Fund was set up by an Act of Parliament in 2001 with the main objectives to establish and promote Aapravasi Ghat as a national, regional and international memorial site, set a museum at Aapravasi Ghat, create public awareness in the history of the site and depict the arrival, settlement and evolution of the immigrants in Mauritius. It also has to identify and acquire sites, buildings and structures linked with the history of the arrival of immigrants and promote the social and cultural aspects of Aapravasi Ghat.


East Indians preparing rice, Jamaica [circa 1890]


About 16 percent of the 37,000 indentured Indian immigrants who arrived between 1845 and 1917 were Muslims. Despite their small number and the adverse environment, they established Islamic institutions. The inner struggle for self-purification replaced the defensive jihad of the Maroons and the Muslim African slaves. This revitalized Islam in Jamaica. India had been ruled by Muslims from the early 13th century. The Moghuls (1526-1858) enriched India by building a great empire that still is a source of pride in modern India.

Slavery had lost its importance by the 1830s. India and China were prominent in Britain’s commerce ad trade, making enormous contributions to its industrialization and economy.

After losing the North American colonies, Britain sought to make India a classical-style colony. The British exchequer knew of the East’s immense wealth, as the East India Company’s trade in silk, muslin, cotton and piece goods had generated great wealth for Britain since the late seventeenth century.

India was the home of cloth manufacturing and the greatest and almost sole supplier of cotton goods, precious stones, drugs, and other valuable products. Evidence suggests that “all the gold and silver of the universe found a thousand and one channels for entering into India, but there was not a single outlet for the precious metals to go out of the country.”

The empire’s opulence and religious harmony gave way to violence and plunder as Britain, following its victory at the Battle of Plassey (1857), pursued a divide-and-rule policy. Evidence suggests that probably between Waterloo (1815) and Plassey a sum of £1 billion was transferred from India to British banks. Between 1833-47, another £315 million flowed into the British economy.

But Britain was not content. To meet its labour needs in the British West Indies, Britain exported about 500,000 East Indians to the Caribbean (1838-1917).

Out of 80,000 Muslims, about 6,000 came to Jamaica during the indentureship period. Their small numbers and challenges of plantation life (starvation, un-Islamic diet, deplorable living conditions in barracks shared by 25-50 adults of different origin, ages, sex, religion, kinship, and 9-hour work days) strengthened their spiritual struggle.

Many came from such predominantly Muslim cities as Lucknow, Allahabad, Ghazipur, Gorakpur, and Shahabad, all of which had witnessed the zenith of Islamic culture and social life. These Muslims ensured the preservation of Islamic identity through community solidarity, adherence to Islamic culture and values, and Islamic education.

This unity manifested itself in the establishment of 2 masjids, which institutionalized Islam in Jamaica.

Muhammad Khan, who came to Jamaica in 1915 at the age of 15, built Masjid Ar-Rahman in Spanish Town in 1957, while Westmoreland’s Masjid Hussein was built by Muhammad Golaub, who immigrated with his father at the age of 7.

This masjid was named in honor of its first imam, Tofazzal Hussein. The two masjids became the community’s spiritual centers, and united the Muslims by teaching them about Islam and its practices. They functioned like the Holy Mosque in Makkah in worship, and like the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah in terms of the community’s spiritual, educational, social, and political life. The indentured Muslims laid the foundation of the 8 other masjids established in Jamaica since the 1960s, with the advent of an African Muslim community that now forms the largest Muslim ethnic group.

With the Indian indentured Muslims, and then with others from the Subcontinent, came the rich Moghul culture’s culinary arts, fashion, lifestyle, and aesthetic arts. Gastronomy and exotic delicacies and entertainment dishes have been appreciated at state functions, special ceremonies, and restaurants bearing such Moghul names as The Taj Mahal and Akbar.

Since the 1960s, the variety of Moghlai dishes has increased by new immigrants from the Subcontinent. These Moghul-inspired delicacies are cherished in Jamaica, and more particularly in Trinidad and Guyana.

Taken from:


Don’t let the Tur drop out of our recipes

Article on Food and Indenture


Global Diasporas: An Introduction By Robin Cohen

Labour and Imperial Diasporas

Indentured Indians and the British


Indentured rendered visible

The story turns to the past for inspiration and looks to the future with optimism

July 26, 2009 Edition 1

Rajendra Chetty

Aziz Hassim’s The Revenge of Kali appears at an appropriate juncture in the history of South Africa – 2010 marks the 150th anniversary of the arrival of the indentured Indians.

In this fictionalised historical novel, which was launched in Durban last week, Hassim renders the history of indenture visible through the exposure of the harsh working conditions of indentured labourers who toiled in the sugar cane fields of Natal in the late 1800s.

He recovers an incredible slice of history, the impact of which still resonates in the heart and soul of the descendants. The scars of indenture are indelible, as the writer witnesses during his interview with a 98-year-old man who became a catalyst for the story.

A Foucauldian archaeological and genealogical approach is used to traverse the terrain of the everyday life on the sugar fields in the first part of the novel, the early resistance to colonial power, the collaboration of the sirdars (foremen) with the landowner; a story from the inside, situated within the small intense world of oppression and exploitation on a single farm.

The story is set in three areas: the first in the cane fields; the second in the “Duchene” behind Durban’s Warwick Triangle and the third in the “Casbah”, the city’s Grey Street complex. The last two places were notorious for the gang wars of the ’50s and ’60s.

There is a sustained emphasis on specifics of routes through the city in the novel and the use of cartographical images in the construction of geographical space is rather interesting.

The Revenge of Kali comes after Hassim’s highly successful debut novel, The Lotus People, won the Sanlam Award for new writing in 2005.

It’s often difficult with a second novel. However, this work, a tender tragic-comedy, is as exciting as the history that inspired it.

While the first book focused on the Indian merchant class, the new book delves into the tough lives of poor indentured Indians.

The ironic and controversial role played by the Indian merchant class as accomplices to the oppression and slavery of their fellow immigrants is told with courage and openness.

In the process of the recovery of history, writers sometimes fall into the trap of either “forgetting” or playing down the insensitivities of class among communities for fear of deepening the complexity of the historical context.

However, Hassim does not simply reinforce the dichotomy of Indian slave and white master/oppressor in the novel. He unearths the atrocities perpetuated by the “passenger” Indians (the merchant class who paid their own passage to South Africa as opposed to indenture) against those from the working class, the girmityas.

The sugar slaves are not portrayed as defenceless victims; rather, the courage and resistance of Ellapen, Mohideen, Runga and Daniel is foregrounded.

The violence of the sirdars is as repulsive as the racist attitude of the white farm owners.

Ellapen vows that they will walk out as free men – or die as free men.

“On that night our slavery ends. But let us not talk about dying. We died on the day they brought us here. We are fighting to be alive again.”

The title of the book was inspired by a prayer recited by cane workers to the Hindu goddess Kali for their white masters to be punished.

She is the goddess of destruction whose cult was characterised by savagery and cannibalism.

It’s interesting that in the stories of indenture from British colonies such as Trinidad, Tobago and Fiji, it was Shiva, god of the dance, the destroyer of evil, that emerged as principal deity as reflected in Itwaru’s poem: “Scatter of worlds and broken wishes/ In Shiva’s unending dance.”

The choice of the female goddess by the South African girmityas, the embodiment of evil with dripping blood, severed arms and a necklace of skulls, is poignant.

There have always been strong women in the writings of South African Indians. The paradox is that Kali also preserves the good: “Leave revenge to the Goddess Kali. She will avenge all of us. Forget the false pictures you may have seen, depicting her as a malevolent and demonic creature with her long tongue hanging out of her mouth, dripping with blood.

“Many mistakenly believe she is the goddess of evil, an incantation of the devil. The truth is none of those things. She is the goddess who punishes evil, penalising corruption and depravity and ensuring justice for the powerless.”

One detects an autobiographical element in this story, concomitant with the rigour of a careful researcher, tinged with the feelings of pathos as articulated by Thiru, a key protagonist: “For some time now, I had been preoccupied by thoughts of the arrival of my ancestors from their distant village in Madras.

“My efforts at researching what drove them to leave their homes and cross the ocean ended dismally. All I could find were fragments of documents that left me asking more questions.

“Until the day I found myself sitting next to an ancient descendant of those early settlers. What that grizzled old man told me shook me to the core, inflamed my passion, and left me seething with anger.

“And it was more than what he said, it was the way he said it: the tremor in his voice, the emotions doing a hideous dance on his face, the terrifying account of the appallingly harsh abuse, the torment and anguish of a lifetime of persecution and tyranny of guileless people abandoned by both God and government.”

Thiru’s quest for information about his ancestors is the driving force of the book.

After vain attempts to unearth his past, he leaves home at 3am one morning and drives to the cane fields where he communicates with the spirits of his ancestors.

Here the story resonates with the magic realism of the monkey’s tale in Vikram Chandra’s Red Earth and Pouring Rain where there’s no distinction between flesh and spirit, imagination and empiricism, gods and humans.

Thiru begins to feel like he was living during the time of his ancestors. He gets to know about Kolappen, who had escaped from the cane fields and then seeks this man to get more answers.


In a surprising twist to the tale, through imaginative accounts of family relationships and love, the breaking down of shrewd Indian distinctions of ethnic and religious divisions, transgressing the state’s abhorrent racial categorisation, and bringing the Foucauldian genealogy full circle, Kolappen’s long-lost grandson emerges.

The story of sugar slavery renews itself each time, a kind of Janus-faced story that turns to the past for its inspiration and yearns for the future with the kind of optimism endemic of diasporic communities.

The imageries associated with indenture and sugar are moving – “The sweetness of the sugar cane was soured by the brutality of slavery that followed, and the bitter legacy it spawned.”

Rajendra Chetty, is a researcher in Commonwealth writings, including South African writings.


Indians Overseas

Indians Overseas


P. Jodanda Rao- 1944

Is a senior member of the Servants of India Society. This speech and
paper comes out of his travels in countries where Indians had settled. This paper provides an interesting insight into contemporary 1940’s Indians views on Diasporic Indian communities.